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0.10 (stable)
Literal Types

DuckDB has special literal types for representing NULL, integer and string literals in queries. These have their own binding and conversion rules.

Prior to version 0.10.0, integer and string literals behaved identically to the INTEGER and VARCHAR types.

Null Literals

The NULL literal can be implicitly converted to any other type.

Integer Literals

INTEGER_LITERAL types can be implicitly converted to any integer type in which the value fits. For example, the integer literal 42 can be implicitly converted to a TINYINT, but the integer literal 1000 cannot be.

String Literals

STRING_LITERAL instances can be implicitly converted to any other type.

For example, we can compare string literals with dates.

SELECT d > '1992-01-01' AS result FROM (VALUES (DATE '1992-01-01')) t(d);
result
false

However, we cannot compare VARCHAR values with dates.

SELECT d > '1992-01-01'::VARCHAR FROM (VALUES (DATE '1992-01-01')) t(d);
Binder Error: Cannot compare values of type DATE and type VARCHAR - an explicit cast is required
LINE 1: SELECT d > '1992-01-01'::VARCHAR FROM (VALUES (D...
                 ^

Escape String Literals

To include special characters such as newline, use E escape the string. Both the uppercase (E'...') and lowercase variants (e'...') work.

SELECT E'Hello\nworld' AS msg;
-- or
SELECT e'Hello\nworld' AS msg;
┌──────────────┐
│     msg      │
│   varchar    │
├──────────────┤
│ Hello\nworld │
└──────────────┘

The following backslash escape sequences are supported:

Escape sequence Name ASCII code
\b backspace 8
\f form feed 12
\n newline 10
\r carriage return 13
\t tab 9

Dollar-Quoted String Literals

DuckDB supports dollar-quoted string literals, which are surrounded by double-dollar symbols ($$):

SELECT $$Hello
world$$ AS msg;
┌──────────────┐
│     msg      │
│   varchar    │
├──────────────┤
│ Hello\nworld │
└──────────────┘
SELECT $$The price is $9.95$$ AS msg;
msg
The price is $9.95
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Last modified: 2024-04-23