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1.0 (stable)
JSON Extension

The json extension is a loadable extension that implements SQL functions that are useful for reading values from existing JSON, and creating new JSON data.

Installing and Loading

The json extension is shipped by default in DuckDB builds, otherwise, it will be transparently autoloaded on first use. If you would like to install and load it manually, run:

LOAD json;

Example Uses

Read a JSON file from disk, auto-infer options:

SELECT * FROM 'todos.json';

read_json with custom options:

FROM read_json('todos.json',
               format = 'array',
               columns = {userId: 'UBIGINT',
                          id: 'UBIGINT',
                          title: 'VARCHAR',
                          completed: 'BOOLEAN'});

Write the result of a query to a JSON file:

COPY (SELECT * FROM todos) TO 'todos.json';

See more examples of loading JSON data on the JSON data page:

Create a table with a column for storing JSON data:

CREATE TABLE example (j JSON);

Insert JSON data into the table:

    ('{ "family": "anatidae", "species": [ "duck", "goose", "swan", null ] }');

Retrieve the family key’s value:

SELECT FROM example;

Extract the family key’s value with a JSONPath expression:

SELECT j->'$.family' FROM example;

Extract the family key’s value with a JSONPath expression as a VARCHAR:

SELECT j->>'$.family' FROM example;


The json extension makes use of the JSON logical type. The JSON logical type is interpreted as JSON, i.e., parsed, in JSON functions rather than interpreted as VARCHAR, i.e., a regular string (modulo the equality-comparison caveat at the bottom of this page). All JSON creation functions return values of this type.

We also allow any of DuckDB’s types to be casted to JSON, and JSON to be casted back to any of DuckDB’s types, for example, to cast JSON to DuckDB’s STRUCT type, run:

SELECT '{"duck": 42}'::JSON::STRUCT(duck INTEGER);
{'duck': 42}

And back:

SELECT {duck: 42}::JSON;

This works for our nested types as shown in the example, but also for non-nested types:

SELECT '2023-05-12'::DATE::JSON;

The only exception to this behavior is the cast from VARCHAR to JSON, which does not alter the data, but instead parses and validates the contents of the VARCHAR as JSON.

JSON Table Functions

The following table functions are used to read JSON:

Function Description
read_json_objects(filename) Read a JSON object from filename, where filename can also be a list of files or a glob pattern.
read_ndjson_objects(filename) Alias for read_json_objects with parameter format set to 'newline_delimited'.
read_json_objects_auto(filename) Alias for read_json_objects with parameter format set to 'auto'.

These functions have the following parameters:

Name Description Type Default
compression The compression type for the file. By default this will be detected automatically from the file extension (e.g., t.json.gz will use gzip, t.json will use none). Options are 'none', 'gzip', 'zstd', and 'auto'. VARCHAR 'auto'
filename Whether or not an extra filename column should be included in the result. BOOL false
format Can be one of ['auto', 'unstructured', 'newline_delimited', 'array']. VARCHAR 'array'
hive_partitioning Whether or not to interpret the path as a Hive partitioned path. BOOL false
ignore_errors Whether to ignore parse errors (only possible when format is 'newline_delimited'). BOOL false
maximum_sample_files The maximum number of JSON files sampled for auto-detection. BIGINT 32
maximum_object_size The maximum size of a JSON object (in bytes). UINTEGER 16777216

The format parameter specifies how to read the JSON from a file. With 'unstructured', the top-level JSON is read, e.g.:

  "duck": 42
  "goose": [1, 2, 3]

will result in two objects being read.

With 'newline_delimited', NDJSON is read, where each JSON is separated by a newline (\n), e.g.:

{"duck": 42}
{"goose": [1, 2, 3]}

will also result in two objects being read.

With 'array', each array element is read, e.g.:

        "duck": 42
        "goose": [1, 2, 3]

Again, will result in two objects being read.

Example usage:

SELECT * FROM read_json_objects('my_file1.json');
SELECT * FROM read_json_objects(['my_file1.json', 'my_file2.json']);
SELECT * FROM read_ndjson_objects('*.json.gz');

DuckDB also supports reading JSON as a table, using the following functions:

Function Description
read_json(filename) Read JSON from filename, where filename can also be a list of files, or a glob pattern.
read_json_auto(filename) Alias for read_json with all auto-detection enabled.
read_ndjson(filename) Alias for read_json with parameter format set to 'newline_delimited'.
read_ndjson_auto(filename) Alias for read_json_auto with parameter format set to 'newline_delimited'.

Besides the maximum_object_size, format, ignore_errors and compression, these functions have additional parameters:

Name Description Type Default
auto_detect Whether to auto-detect the names of the keys and data types of the values automatically BOOL false
columns A struct that specifies the key names and value types contained within the JSON file (e.g., {key1: 'INTEGER', key2: 'VARCHAR'}). If auto_detect is enabled these will be inferred STRUCT (empty)
dateformat Specifies the date format to use when parsing dates. See Date Format VARCHAR 'iso'
maximum_depth Maximum nesting depth to which the automatic schema detection detects types. Set to -1 to fully detect nested JSON types BIGINT -1
records Can be one of ['auto', 'true', 'false'] VARCHAR 'records'
sample_size Option to define number of sample objects for automatic JSON type detection. Set to -1 to scan the entire input file UBIGINT 20480
timestampformat Specifies the date format to use when parsing timestamps. See Date Format VARCHAR 'iso'
union_by_name Whether the schema’s of multiple JSON files should be unified BOOL false

Example usage:

SELECT * FROM read_json('my_file1.json', columns = {duck: 'INTEGER'});

DuckDB can convert JSON arrays directly to its internal LIST type, and missing keys become NULL:

FROM read_json(
        ['my_file1.json', 'my_file2.json'],
        columns = {duck: 'INTEGER', goose: 'INTEGER[]', swan: 'DOUBLE'}
duck goose swan
42 [1, 2, 3] NULL
43 [4, 5, 6] 3.3

DuckDB can automatically detect the types like so:

SELECT goose, duck FROM read_json_auto('*.json.gz');
SELECT goose, duck FROM '*.json.gz'; -- equivalent
goose duck
[1, 2, 3] 42
[4, 5, 6] 43

DuckDB can read (and auto-detect) a variety of formats, specified with the format parameter. Querying a JSON file that contains an 'array', e.g.:

    "duck": 42,
    "goose": 4.2
    "duck": 43,
    "goose": 4.3

Can be queried exactly the same as a JSON file that contains 'unstructured' JSON, e.g.:

    "duck": 42,
    "goose": 4.2
    "duck": 43,
    "goose": 4.3

Both can be read as the table:

duck goose
42 4.2
43 4.3

If your JSON file does not contain ‘records’, i.e., any other type of JSON than objects, DuckDB can still read it. This is specified with the records parameter. The records parameter specifies whether the JSON contains records that should be unpacked into individual columns, i.e., reading the following file with records:

{"duck": 42, "goose": [1, 2, 3]}
{"duck": 43, "goose": [4, 5, 6]}

Results in two columns:

duck goose
42 [1,2,3]
42 [4,5,6]

You can read the same file with records set to 'false', to get a single column, which is a STRUCT containing the data:

{‘duck’: 42, ‘goose’: [1,2,3]}
{‘duck’: 43, ‘goose’: [4,5,6]}

For additional examples reading more complex data, please see the Shredding Deeply Nested JSON, One Vector at a Time blog post.

JSON Import/Export

When the json extension is installed, FORMAT JSON is supported for COPY FROM, COPY TO, EXPORT DATABASE and IMPORT DATABASE. See Copy and Import/Export.

By default, COPY expects newline-delimited JSON. If you prefer copying data to/from a JSON array, you can specify ARRAY true, e.g.,

COPY (SELECT * FROM range(5)) TO 'my.json' (ARRAY true);

will create the following file:


This can be read like so:

COPY test FROM 'my.json' (ARRAY true);

The format can be detected automatically the format like so:

COPY test FROM 'my.json' (AUTO_DETECT true);

JSON Creation Functions

The following functions are used to create JSON.

Function Description
to_json(any) Create JSON from a value of any type. Our LIST is converted to a JSON array, and our STRUCT and MAP are converted to a JSON object.
json_quote(any) Alias for to_json.
array_to_json(list) Alias for to_json that only accepts LIST.
row_to_json(list) Alias for to_json that only accepts STRUCT.
json_array([any, ...]) Create a JSON array from any number of values.
json_object([key, value, ...]) Create a JSON object from any number of key, value pairs.
json_merge_patch(json, json) Merge two JSON documents together.


SELECT to_json('duck');
SELECT to_json([1, 2, 3]);
SELECT to_json({duck : 42});
SELECT to_json(map(['duck'],[42]));
SELECT json_array(42, 'duck', NULL);
SELECT json_object('duck', 42);
SELECT json_merge_patch('{"duck": 42}', '{"goose": 123}');

JSON Extraction Functions

There are two extraction functions, which have their respective operators. The operators can only be used if the string is stored as the JSON logical type. These functions supports the same two location notations as the previous functions.

Function Alias Operator Description
json_extract(json, path) json_extract_path -> Extract JSON from json at the given path. If path is a LIST, the result will be a LIST of JSON
json_extract_string(json, path) json_extract_path_text ->> Extract VARCHAR from json at the given path. If path is a LIST, the result will be a LIST of VARCHAR

Note that the equality comparison operator (=) has a higher precedence than the -> JSON extract operator. Therefore, surround the uses of the -> operator with parentheses when making equality comparisons. For example:

SELECT ((JSON '{"field": 42}')->'field') = 42;

Warning DuckDB’s JSON data type uses 0-based indexing.


CREATE TABLE example (j JSON);
    ('{ "family": "anatidae", "species": [ "duck", "goose", "swan", null ] }');
SELECT json_extract(j, '$.family') FROM example;
SELECT j->'$.family' FROM example;
SELECT j->'$.species[0]' FROM example;
SELECT j->'$.species[*]' FROM example;
["duck", "goose", "swan", null]
SELECT j->>'$.species[*]' FROM example;
[duck, goose, swan, null]
SELECT j->'$.species'->0 FROM example;
SELECT j->'species'->['0','1'] FROM example;
["duck", "goose"]
SELECT json_extract_string(j, '$.family') FROM example;
SELECT j->>'$.family' FROM example;
SELECT j->>'$.species[0]' FROM example;
SELECT j->'species'->>0 FROM example;
SELECT j->'species'->>['0','1'] FROM example;
[duck, goose]

Note that DuckDB’s JSON data type uses 0-based indexing.

If multiple values need to be extracted from the same JSON, it is more efficient to extract a list of paths:

The following will cause the JSON to be parsed twice,:

Resulting in a slower query that uses more memory:

    json_extract(j, 'family') AS family,
    json_extract(j, 'species') AS species
FROM example;
family species
“anatidae” [“duck”,”goose”,”swan”,null]

The following produces the same result but is faster and more memory-efficient:

WITH extracted AS (
    SELECT json_extract(j, ['family', 'species']) AS extracted_list
    FROM example
SELECT extracted_list[1] AS family,
       extracted_list[2] AS species
FROM extracted;

JSON Scalar Functions

The following scalar JSON functions can be used to gain information about the stored JSON values. With the exception of json_valid(json), all JSON functions produce an error when invalid JSON is supplied.

We support two kinds of notations to describe locations within JSON: JSON Pointer and JSONPath.

Function Description
json_array_length(json[, path]) Return the number of elements in the JSON array json, or 0 if it is not a JSON array. If path is specified, return the number of elements in the JSON array at the given path. If path is a LIST, the result will be LIST of array lengths.
json_contains(json_haystack, json_needle) Returns true if json_needle is contained in json_haystack. Both parameters are of JSON type, but json_needle can also be a numeric value or a string, however the string must be wrapped in double quotes.
json_keys(json[, path]) Returns the keys of json as a LIST of VARCHAR, if json is a JSON object. If path is specified, return the keys of the JSON object at the given path. If path is a LIST, the result will be LIST of LIST of VARCHAR.
json_structure(json) Return the structure of json. Defaults to JSON the structure is inconsistent (e.g., incompatible types in an array).
json_type(json[, path]) Return the type of the supplied json, which is one of ARRAY, BIGINT, BOOLEAN, DOUBLE, OBJECT, UBIGINT, VARCHAR, and NULL. If path is specified, return the type of the element at the given path. If path is a LIST, the result will be LIST of types.
json_valid(json) Return whether json is valid JSON.
json(json) Parse and minify json.

The JSONPointer syntax separates each field with a /. For example, to extract the first element of the array with key "duck", you can do:

SELECT json_extract('{"duck": [1, 2, 3]}', '/duck/0');

The JSONPath syntax separates fields with a ., and accesses array elements with [i], and always starts with $. Using the same example, we can do the following:

SELECT json_extract('{"duck": [1, 2, 3]}', '$.duck[0]');

Note that DuckDB’s JSON data type uses 0-based indexing.

JSONPath is more expressive, and can also access from the back of lists:

SELECT json_extract('{"duck": [1, 2, 3]}', '$.duck[#-1]');

JSONPath also allows escaping syntax tokens, using double quotes:

SELECT json_extract('{"duck.goose": [1, 2, 3]}', '$."duck.goose"[1]');

Examples using the anatidae biological family:

CREATE TABLE example (j JSON);
    ('{ "family": "anatidae", "species": [ "duck", "goose", "swan", null ] }');
SELECT json(j) FROM example;
SELECT FROM example;
SELECT j.species[0] FROM example;
SELECT json_valid(j) FROM example;
SELECT json_valid('{');
SELECT json_array_length('["duck", "goose", "swan", null]');
SELECT json_array_length(j, 'species') FROM example;
SELECT json_array_length(j, '/species') FROM example;
SELECT json_array_length(j, '$.species') FROM example;
SELECT json_array_length(j, ['$.species']) FROM example;
SELECT json_type(j) FROM example;
SELECT json_keys(j) FROM example;
[family, species]
SELECT json_structure(j) FROM example;
SELECT json_structure('["duck", {"family": "anatidae"}]');
SELECT json_contains('{"key": "value"}', '"value"');
SELECT json_contains('{"key": 1}', '1');
SELECT json_contains('{"top_key": {"key": "value"}}', '{"key": "value"}');

JSON Aggregate Functions

There are three JSON aggregate functions.

Function Description
json_group_array(any) Return a JSON array with all values of any in the aggregation.
json_group_object(key, value) Return a JSON object with all key, value pairs in the aggregation.
json_group_structure(json) Return the combined json_structure of all json in the aggregation.


INSERT INTO example1 VALUES ('duck', 42), ('goose', 7);
SELECT json_group_array(v) FROM example1;
[42, 7]
SELECT json_group_object(k, v) FROM example1;
CREATE TABLE example2 (j JSON);
    ('{"family": "anatidae", "species": ["duck", "goose"], "coolness": 42.42}'),
    ('{"family": "canidae", "species": ["labrador", "bulldog"], "hair": true}');
SELECT json_group_structure(j) FROM example2;

Transforming JSON

In many cases, it is inefficient to extract values from JSON one-by-one. Instead, we can “extract” all values at once, transforming JSON to the nested types LIST and STRUCT.

Function Description
json_transform(json, structure) Transform json according to the specified structure.
from_json(json, structure) Alias for json_transform.
json_transform_strict(json, structure) Same as json_transform, but throws an error when type casting fails.
from_json_strict(json, structure) Alias for json_transform_strict.

The structure argument is JSON of the same form as returned by json_structure. The structure argument can be modified to transform the JSON into the desired structure and types. It is possible to extract fewer key/value pairs than are present in the JSON, and it is also possible to extract more: missing keys become NULL.


CREATE TABLE example (j JSON);
    ('{"family": "anatidae", "species": ["duck", "goose"], "coolness": 42.42}'),
    ('{"family": "canidae", "species": ["labrador", "bulldog"], "hair": true}');
SELECT json_transform(j, '{"family": "VARCHAR", "coolness": "DOUBLE"}') FROM example;
{'family': anatidae, 'coolness': 42.420000}
{'family': canidae, 'coolness': NULL}
SELECT json_transform(j, '{"family": "TINYINT", "coolness": "DECIMAL(4, 2)"}') FROM example;
{'family': NULL, 'coolness': 42.42}
{'family': NULL, 'coolness': NULL}
SELECT json_transform_strict(j, '{"family": "TINYINT", "coolness": "DOUBLE"}') FROM example;
Invalid Input Error: Failed to cast value: "anatidae"

Serializing and Deserializing SQL to JSON and Vice Versa

The json extension also provides functions to serialize and deserialize SELECT statements between SQL and JSON, as well as executing JSON serialized statements.

Function Type Description
json_deserialize_sql(json) Scalar Deserialize one or many json serialized statements back to an equivalent SQL string.
json_execute_serialized_sql(varchar) Table Execute json serialized statements and return the resulting rows. Only one statement at a time is supported for now.
json_serialize_sql(varchar, skip_empty := boolean, skip_null := boolean, format := boolean) Scalar Serialize a set of semicolon-separated (;) select statements to an equivalent list of json serialized statements.
PRAGMA json_execute_serialized_sql(varchar) Pragma Pragma version of the json_execute_serialized_sql function.

The json_serialize_sql(varchar) function takes three optional parameters, skip_empty, skip_null, and format that can be used to control the output of the serialized statements.

If you run the json_execute_serialize_sql(varchar) table function inside of a transaction the serialized statements will not be able to see any transaction local changes. This is because the statements are executed in a separate query context. You can use the PRAGMA json_execute_serialize_sql(varchar) pragma version to execute the statements in the same query context as the pragma, although with the limitation that the serialized JSON must be provided as a constant string, i.e., you cannot do PRAGMA json_execute_serialize_sql(json_serialize_sql(...)).

Note that these functions do not preserve syntactic sugar such as FROM * SELECT ..., so a statement round-tripped through json_deserialize_sql(json_serialize_sql(...)) may not be identical to the original statement, but should always be semantically equivalent and produce the same output.


Simple example:

SELECT json_serialize_sql('SELECT 2');

Example with multiple statements and skip options:

SELECT json_serialize_sql('SELECT 1 + 2; SELECT a + b FROM tbl1', skip_empty := true, skip_null := true);

Example with a syntax error:

SELECT json_serialize_sql('TOTALLY NOT VALID SQL');
'{"error":true,"error_type":"parser","error_message":"syntax error at or near \"TOTALLY\"\nLINE 1: TOTALLY NOT VALID SQL\n        ^"}'

Example with deserialize:

SELECT json_deserialize_sql(json_serialize_sql('SELECT 1 + 2'));
'SELECT (1 + 2)'

Example with deserialize and syntax sugar:

SELECT json_deserialize_sql(json_serialize_sql('FROM x SELECT 1 + 2'));
'SELECT (1 + 2) FROM x'

Example with execute:

SELECT * FROM json_execute_serialized_sql(json_serialize_sql('SELECT 1 + 2'));

Example with error:

SELECT * FROM json_execute_serialized_sql(json_serialize_sql('TOTALLY NOT VALID SQL'));
Error: Parser Error: Error parsing json: parser: syntax error at or near "TOTALLY"


Warning Following PostgreSQL’s conventions, DuckDB uses 1-based indexing for arrays and lists but 0-based indexing for the JSON data type.

Equality Comparison

Warning Currently, equality comparison of JSON files can differ based on the context. In some cases, it is based on raw text comparison, while in other cases, it uses logical content comparison.

The following query returns true for all fields:

    a != b, -- Space is part of physical JSON content. Despite equal logical content, values are treated as not equal.
    c != d, -- Same.
    c[0] = d[0], -- Equality because space was removed from physical content of fields:
    a = c[0], -- Indeed, field is equal to empty list without space...
    b != c[0], -- ... but different from empty list with space.
        '[]'::JSON AS a,
        '[ ]'::JSON AS b,
        '[[]]'::JSON AS c,
        '[[ ]]'::JSON AS d
(a != b) (c != d) (c[0] = d[0]) (a = c[0]) (b != c[0])
true true true true true