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0.10 (stable)
Timestamp with Time Zone Functions

This section describes functions and operators for examining and manipulating TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE (or TIMESTAMPTZ) values.

Despite the name, these values do not store a time zone – just an instant like TIMESTAMP. Instead, they request that the instant be binned and formatted using the current time zone.

Time zone support is not built in but can be provided by an extension, such as the ICU extension that ships with DuckDB.

In the examples below, the current time zone is presumed to be America/Los_Angeles using the Gregorian calendar.

Built-In Timestamp with Time Zone Functions

The table below shows the available scalar functions for TIMESTAMPTZ values. Since these functions do not involve binning or display, they are always available.

Name Description
current_timestamp Current date and time (start of current transaction).
get_current_timestamp() Current date and time (start of current transaction).
greatest(timestamptz, timestamptz) The later of two timestamps.
isfinite(timestamptz) Returns true if the timestamp with time zone is finite, false otherwise.
isinf(timestamptz) Returns true if the timestamp with time zone is infinite, false otherwise.
least(timestamptz, timestamptz) The earlier of two timestamps.
now() Current date and time (start of current transaction).
transaction_timestamp() Current date and time (start of current transaction).

current_timestamp

Description Current date and time (start of current transaction).
Example current_timestamp
Result 2022-10-08 12:44:46.122-07

get_current_timestamp()

Description Current date and time (start of current transaction).
Example get_current_timestamp()
Result 2022-10-08 12:44:46.122-07

greatest(timestamptz, timestamptz)

Description The later of two timestamps.
Example greatest(TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-20 20:38:48', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-03-22 01:02:03.1234')
Result 1992-09-20 20:38:48-07

isfinite(timestamptz)

Description Returns true if the timestamp with time zone is finite, false otherwise.
Example isfinite(TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-03-07')
Result true

isinf(timestamptz)

Description Returns true if the timestamp with time zone is infinite, false otherwise.
Example isinf(TIMESTAMPTZ '-infinity')
Result true

least(timestamptz, timestamptz)

Description The earlier of two timestamps.
Example least(TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-20 20:38:48', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-03-22 01:02:03.1234')
Result 1992-03-22 01:02:03.1234-08

now()

Description Current date and time (start of current transaction).
Example now()
Result 2022-10-08 12:44:46.122-07

transaction_timestamp()

Description Current date and time (start of current transaction).
Example transaction_timestamp()
Result 2022-10-08 12:44:46.122-07

Timestamp with Time Zone Strings

With no time zone extension loaded, TIMESTAMPTZ values will be cast to and from strings using offset notation. This will let you specify an instant correctly without access to time zone information. For portability, TIMESTAMPTZ values will always be displayed using GMT offsets:

SELECT '2022-10-08 13:13:34-07'::TIMESTAMPTZ;
-- 2022-10-08 20:13:34+00

If a time zone extension such as ICU is loaded, then a time zone can be parsed from a string and cast to a representation in the local time zone:

SELECT '2022-10-08 13:13:34 Europe/Amsterdam'::TIMESTAMPTZ::VARCHAR;
-- 2022-10-08 04:13:34-07 -- the offset will differ based on your local time zone

ICU Timestamp with Time Zone Operators

The table below shows the available mathematical operators for TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE values provided by the ICU extension.

Operator Description Example Result
+ addition of an INTERVAL TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-03-22 01:02:03' + INTERVAL 5 DAY 1992-03-27 01:02:03
- subtraction of TIMESTAMPTZs TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-03-27' - TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-03-22' 5 days
- subtraction of an INTERVAL TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-03-27 01:02:03' - INTERVAL 5 DAY 1992-03-22 01:02:03

Adding to or subtracting from infinite values produces the same infinite value.

ICU Timestamp with Time Zone Functions

The table below shows the ICU provided scalar functions for TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE values.

Name Description
age(timestamptz, timestamptz) Subtract arguments, resulting in the time difference between the two timestamps.
age(timestamptz) Subtract from current_date.
date_diff(part, startdate, enddate) The number of partition boundaries between the timestamps.
date_part([part, ...], timestamptz) Get the listed subfields as a struct. The list must be constant.
date_part(part, timestamptz) Get subfield (equivalent to extract).
date_sub(part, startdate, enddate) The number of complete partitions between the timestamps.
date_trunc(part, timestamptz) Truncate to specified precision.
datediff(part, startdate, enddate) Alias of date_diff. The number of partition boundaries between the timestamps.
datepart([part, ...], timestamptz) Alias of date_part. Get the listed subfields as a struct. The list must be constant.
datepart(part, timestamptz) Alias of date_part. Get subfield (equivalent to extract).
datesub(part, startdate, enddate) Alias of date_sub. The number of complete partitions between the timestamps.
datetrunc(part, timestamptz) Alias of date_trunc. Truncate to specified precision.
epoch_ms(timestamptz) Converts a timestamptz to milliseconds since the epoch.
epoch_ns(timestamptz) Converts a timestamptz to nanoseconds since the epoch.
epoch_us(timestamptz) Converts a timestamptz to microseconds since the epoch.
extract(field FROM timestamptz) Get subfield from a TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE.
last_day(timestamptz) The last day of the month.
make_timestamptz(bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, double, string) The TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE for the given parts and time zone.
make_timestamptz(bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, double) The TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE for the given parts in the current time zone.
make_timestamptz(microseconds) The TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE for the given µs since the epoch.
strftime(timestamptz, format) Converts a TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE value to string according to the format string.
strptime(text, format) Converts string to TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE according to the format string if %Z is specified.
time_bucket(bucket_width, timestamptz[, offset]) Truncate timestamptz by the specified interval bucket_width. Buckets are offset by offset interval.
time_bucket(bucket_width, timestamptz[, origin]) Truncate timestamptz by the specified interval bucket_width. Buckets are aligned relative to origin timestamptz. origin defaults to 2000-01-03 00:00:00+00 for buckets that don’t include a month or year interval, and to 2000-01-01 00:00:00+00 for month and year buckets.
time_bucket(bucket_width, timestamptz[, timezone]) Truncate timestamptz by the specified interval bucket_width. Bucket starts and ends are calculated using timezone. timezone is a varchar and defaults to UTC.

age(timestamptz, timestamptz)

Description Subtract arguments, resulting in the time difference between the two timestamps.
Example age(TIMESTAMPTZ '2001-04-10', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-20')
Result 8 years 6 months 20 days

age(timestamptz)

Description Subtract from current_date.
Example age(TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20')
Result 29 years 1 month 27 days 12:39:00.844

date_diff(part, startdate, enddate)

Description The number of partition boundaries between the timestamps.
Example date_diff('hour', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-30 23:59:59', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-10-01 01:58:00')
Result 2

date_part([part, ...], timestamptz)

Description Get the listed subfields as a struct. The list must be constant.
Example date_part(['year', 'month', 'day'], TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-20 20:38:40-07')
Result {year: 1992, month: 9, day: 20}

date_part(part, timestamptz)

Description Get subfield (equivalent to extract).
Example date_part('minute', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-20 20:38:40')
Result 38

date_sub(part, startdate, enddate)

Description The number of complete partitions between the timestamps.
Example date_sub('hour', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-30 23:59:59', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-10-01 01:58:00')
Result 1

date_trunc(part, timestamptz)

Description Truncate to specified precision.
Example date_trunc('hour', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-20 20:38:40')
Result 1992-09-20 20:00:00

datediff(part, startdate, enddate)

Description Alias of date_diff. The number of partition boundaries between the timestamps.
Example datediff('hour', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-30 23:59:59', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-10-01 01:58:00')
Result 2

datepart([part, ...], timestamptz)

Description Alias of date_part. Get the listed subfields as a struct. The list must be constant.
Example datepart(['year', 'month', 'day'], TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-20 20:38:40-07')
Result {year: 1992, month: 9, day: 20}

datepart(part, timestamptz)

Description Alias of date_part. Get subfield (equivalent to extract).
Example datepart('minute', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-20 20:38:40')
Result 38

datesub(part, startdate, enddate)

Description Alias of date_sub. The number of complete partitions between the timestamps.
Example datesub('hour', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-30 23:59:59', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-10-01 01:58:00')
Result 1

datetrunc(part, timestamptz)

Description Alias of date_trunc. Truncate to specified precision.
Example datetrunc('hour', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-20 20:38:40')
Result 1992-09-20 20:00:00

epoch_ms(timestamptz)

Description Converts a timestamptz to milliseconds since the epoch.
Example epoch_ms('2022-11-07 08:43:04.123456+00'::TIMESTAMPTZ);
Result 1667810584123

epoch_ns(timestamptz)

Description Converts a timestamptz to nanoseconds since the epoch.
Example epoch_ns('2022-11-07 08:43:04.123456+00'::TIMESTAMPTZ);
Result 1667810584123456000

epoch_us(timestamptz)

Description Converts a timestamptz to microseconds since the epoch.
Example epoch_us('2022-11-07 08:43:04.123456+00'::TIMESTAMPTZ);
Result 1667810584123456

extract(field FROM timestamptz)

Description Get subfield from a TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE.
Example extract('hour' FROM TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-09-20 20:38:48')
Result 20

last_day(timestamptz)

Description The last day of the month.
Example last_day(TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-03-22 01:02:03.1234')
Result 1992-03-31

make_timestamptz(bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, double, string)

Description The TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE for the given parts and time zone.
Example make_timestamptz(1992, 9, 20, 15, 34, 27.123456, 'CET')
Result 1992-09-20 06:34:27.123456-07

make_timestamptz(bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, double)

Description The TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE for the given parts in the current time zone.
Example make_timestamptz(1992, 9, 20, 13, 34, 27.123456)
Result 1992-09-20 13:34:27.123456-07

make_timestamptz(microseconds)

Description The TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE for the given µs since the epoch.
Example make_timestamptz(1667810584123456)
Result 2022-11-07 16:43:04.123456-08

strftime(timestamptz, format)

Description Converts a TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE value to string according to the format string.
Example strftime(timestamptz '1992-01-01 20:38:40', '%a, %-d %B %Y - %I:%M:%S %p')
Result Wed, 1 January 1992 - 08:38:40 PM

strptime(text, format)

Description Converts string to TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE according to the format string if %Z is specified.
Example strptime('Wed, 1 January 1992 - 08:38:40 PST', '%a, %-d %B %Y - %H:%M:%S %Z')
Result 1992-01-01 08:38:40-08

time_bucket(bucket_width, timestamptz[, offset])

Description Truncate timestamptz by the specified interval bucket_width. Buckets are offset by offset interval.
Example time_bucket(INTERVAL '10 minutes', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-04-20 15:26:00-07', INTERVAL '5 minutes')
Result 1992-04-20 15:25:00-07

time_bucket(bucket_width, timestamptz[, origin])

Description Truncate timestamptz by the specified interval bucket_width. Buckets are aligned relative to origin timestamptz. origin defaults to 2000-01-03 00:00:00+00 for buckets that don’t include a month or year interval, and to 2000-01-01 00:00:00+00 for month and year buckets.
Example time_bucket(INTERVAL '2 weeks', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-04-20 15:26:00-07', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-04-01 00:00:00-07')
Result 1992-04-15 00:00:00-07

time_bucket(bucket_width, timestamptz[, timezone])

Description Truncate timestamptz by the specified interval bucket_width. Bucket starts and ends are calculated using timezone. timezone is a varchar and defaults to UTC.
Example time_bucket(INTERVAL '2 days', TIMESTAMPTZ '1992-04-20 15:26:00-07', 'Europe/Berlin')
Result 1992-04-19 15:00:00-07

There are also dedicated extraction functions to get the subfields.

ICU Timestamp Table Functions

The table below shows the available table functions for TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE types.

Name Description
generate_series(timestamptz, timestamptz, interval) Generate a table of timestamps in the closed range (including both the starting timestamp and the ending timestamp), stepping by the interval.
range(timestamptz, timestamptz, interval) Generate a table of timestamps in the half open range (including the starting timestamp, but stopping before the ending timestamp), stepping by the interval.

Infinite values are not allowed as table function bounds.

generate_series(timestamptz, timestamptz, interval)

Description Generate a table of timestamps in the closed range (including both the starting timestamp and the ending timestamp), stepping by the interval.
Example generate_series(TIMESTAMPTZ '2001-04-10', TIMESTAMPTZ '2001-04-11', INTERVAL 30 MINUTE)

range(timestamptz, timestamptz, interval)

Description Generate a table of timestamps in the half open range (including the starting timestamp, but stopping before the ending timestamp), stepping by the interval.
Example range(TIMESTAMPTZ '2001-04-10', TIMESTAMPTZ '2001-04-11', INTERVAL 30 MINUTE)

ICU Timestamp Without Time Zone Functions

The table below shows the ICU provided scalar functions that operate on plain TIMESTAMP values. These functions assume that the TIMESTAMP is a “local timestamp”.

A local timestamp is effectively a way of encoding the part values from a time zone into a single value. They should be used with caution because the produced values can contain gaps and ambiguities thanks to daylight savings time. Often the same functionality can be implemented more reliably using the struct variant of the date_part function.

Name Description
current_localtime() Returns a TIME whose GMT bin values correspond to local time in the current time zone.
current_localtimestamp() Returns a TIMESTAMP whose GMT bin values correspond to local date and time in the current time zone.
localtime Synonym for the current_localtime() function call.
localtimestamp Synonym for the current_localtimestamp() function call.
timezone(text, timestamp) Use the date parts of the timestamp in GMT to construct a timestamp in the given time zone. Effectively, the argument is a “local” time.
timezone(text, timestamptz) Use the date parts of the timestamp in the given time zone to construct a timestamp. Effectively, the result is a “local” time.

current_localtime()

Description Returns a TIME whose GMT bin values correspond to local time in the current time zone.
Example current_localtime()
Result 08:47:56.497

current_localtimestamp()

Description Returns a TIMESTAMP whose GMT bin values correspond to local date and time in the current time zone.
Example current_localtimestamp()
Result 2022-12-17 08:47:56.497

localtime

Description Synonym for the current_localtime() function call.
Example localtime
Result 08:47:56.497

localtimestamp

Description Synonym for the current_localtimestamp() function call.
Example localtimestamp
Result 2022-12-17 08:47:56.497

timezone(text, timestamp)

Description Use the date parts of the timestamp in GMT to construct a timestamp in the given time zone. Effectively, the argument is a “local” time.
Example timezone('America/Denver', TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40')
Result 2001-02-16 19:38:40-08

timezone(text, timestamptz)

Description Use the date parts of the timestamp in the given time zone to construct a timestamp. Effectively, the result is a “local” time.
Example timezone('America/Denver', TIMESTAMPTZ '2001-02-16 20:38:40-05')
Result 2001-02-16 18:38:40

At Time Zone

The AT TIME ZONE syntax is syntactic sugar for the (two argument) timezone function listed above:

TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40' AT TIME ZONE 'America/Denver';
-- 2001-02-16 19:38:40-08
TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE '2001-02-16 20:38:40-05' AT TIME ZONE 'America/Denver';
-- 2001-02-16 18:38:40

Infinities

Functions applied to infinite dates will either return the same infinite dates (e.g, greatest) or NULL (e.g., date_part) depending on what “makes sense”. In general, if the function needs to examine the parts of the infinite temporal value, the result will be NULL.

Calendars

The ICU extension also supports non-Gregorian calendars. If such a calendar is current, then the display and binning operations will use that calendar.

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Last modified: 2024-05-22