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Timestamp Functions

This section describes functions and operators for examining and manipulating TIMESTAMP values.

Timestamp Operators

The table below shows the available mathematical operators for TIMESTAMP types.

Operator Description Example Result
+ addition of an INTERVAL TIMESTAMP '1992-03-22 01:02:03' + INTERVAL 5 DAY 1992-03-27 01:02:03
- subtraction of TIMESTAMPs TIMESTAMP '1992-03-27' - TIMESTAMP '1992-03-22' 5 days
- subtraction of an INTERVAL TIMESTAMP '1992-03-27 01:02:03' - INTERVAL 5 DAY 1992-03-22 01:02:03

Adding to or subtracting from infinite values produces the same infinite value.

Scalar Timestamp Functions

The table below shows the available scalar functions for TIMESTAMP values.

Name Description
age(timestamp, timestamp) Subtract arguments, resulting in the time difference between the two timestamps.
age(timestamp) Subtract from current_date.
century(timestamp) Extracts the century of a timestamp.
current_timestamp Returns the current timestamp (at the start of the transaction).
date_diff(part, startdate, enddate) The number of partition boundaries between the timestamps.
date_part([part, ...], timestamp) Get the listed subfields as a struct. The list must be constant.
date_part(part, timestamp) Get subfield (equivalent to extract).
date_sub(part, startdate, enddate) The number of complete partitions between the timestamps.
date_trunc(part, timestamp) Truncate to specified precision.
datediff(part, startdate, enddate) Alias of date_diff. The number of partition boundaries between the timestamps.
datepart([part, ...], timestamp) Alias of date_part. Get the listed subfields as a struct. The list must be constant.
datepart(part, timestamp) Alias of date_part. Get subfield (equivalent to extract).
datesub(part, startdate, enddate) Alias of date_sub. The number of complete partitions between the timestamps.
datetrunc(part, timestamp) Alias of date_trunc. Truncate to specified precision.
dayname(timestamp) The (English) name of the weekday.
epoch_ms(ms) Converts ms since epoch to a timestamp.
epoch_ms(timestamp) Converts a timestamp to milliseconds since the epoch.
epoch_ms(timestamp) Return the total number of milliseconds since the epoch.
epoch_ns(timestamp) Return the total number of nanoseconds since the epoch.
epoch_us(timestamp) Return the total number of microseconds since the epoch.
epoch(timestamp) Converts a timestamp to seconds since the epoch.
extract(field FROM timestamp) Get subfield from a timestamp.
greatest(timestamp, timestamp) The later of two timestamps.
isfinite(timestamp) Returns true if the timestamp is finite, false otherwise.
isinf(timestamp) Returns true if the timestamp is infinite, false otherwise.
last_day(timestamp) The last day of the month.
least(timestamp, timestamp) The earlier of two timestamps.
make_timestamp(bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, double) The timestamp for the given parts.
make_timestamp(microseconds) The timestamp for the given number of µs since the epoch.
monthname(timestamp) The (English) name of the month.
strftime(timestamp, format) Converts timestamp to string according to the format string.
strptime(text, format-list) Converts the string text to timestamp applying the format strings in the list until one succeeds. Throws an error on failure. To return NULL on failure, use try_strptime.
strptime(text, format) Converts the string text to timestamp according to the format string. Throws an error on failure. To return NULL on failure, use try_strptime.
time_bucket(bucket_width, timestamp[, offset]) Truncate timestamp by the specified interval bucket_width. Buckets are offset by offset interval.
time_bucket(bucket_width, timestamp[, origin]) Truncate timestamp by the specified interval bucket_width. Buckets are aligned relative to origin timestamp. origin defaults to 2000-01-03 00:00:00 for buckets that don't include a month or year interval, and to 2000-01-01 00:00:00 for month and year buckets.
to_timestamp(double) Converts seconds since the epoch to a timestamp with time zone.
try_strptime(text, format-list) Converts the string text to timestamp applying the format strings in the list until one succeeds. Returns NULL on failure.
try_strptime(text, format) Converts the string text to timestamp according to the format string. Returns NULL on failure.

There are also dedicated extraction functions to get the subfields.

Functions applied to infinite dates will either return the same infinite dates (e.g, greatest) or NULL (e.g., date_part) depending on what "makes sense". In general, if the function needs to examine the parts of the infinite date, the result will be NULL.

age(timestamp, timestamp)

Description Subtract arguments, resulting in the time difference between the two timestamps.
Example age(TIMESTAMP '2001-04-10', TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20')
Result 8 years 6 months 20 days

age(timestamp)

Description Subtract from current_date.
Example age(TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20')
Result 29 years 1 month 27 days 12:39:00.844

century(timestamp)

Description Extracts the century of a timestamp.
Example century(TIMESTAMP '1992-03-22')
Result 20

current_timestamp

Description Returns the current timestamp with time zone (at the start of the transaction).
Example current_timestamp
Result 2024-04-16T09:14:36.098Z

date_diff(part, startdate, enddate)

Description The number of partition boundaries between the timestamps.
Example date_diff('hour', TIMESTAMP '1992-09-30 23:59:59', TIMESTAMP '1992-10-01 01:58:00')
Result 2

date_part([part, ...], timestamp)

Description Get the listed subfields as a struct. The list must be constant.
Example date_part(['year', 'month', 'day'], TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20 20:38:40')
Result {year: 1992, month: 9, day: 20}

date_part(part, timestamp)

Description Get subfield (equivalent to extract).
Example date_part('minute', TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20 20:38:40')
Result 38

date_sub(part, startdate, enddate)

Description The number of complete partitions between the timestamps.
Example date_sub('hour', TIMESTAMP '1992-09-30 23:59:59', TIMESTAMP '1992-10-01 01:58:00')
Result 1

date_trunc(part, timestamp)

Description Truncate to specified precision.
Example date_trunc('hour', TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20 20:38:40')
Result 1992-09-20 20:00:00

datediff(part, startdate, enddate)

Description Alias of date_diff. The number of partition boundaries between the timestamps.
Example datediff('hour', TIMESTAMP '1992-09-30 23:59:59', TIMESTAMP '1992-10-01 01:58:00')
Result 2

datepart([part, ...], timestamp)

Description Alias of date_part. Get the listed subfields as a struct. The list must be constant.
Example datepart(['year', 'month', 'day'], TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20 20:38:40')
Result {year: 1992, month: 9, day: 20}

datepart(part, timestamp)

Description Alias of date_part. Get subfield (equivalent to extract).
Example datepart('minute', TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20 20:38:40')
Result 38

datesub(part, startdate, enddate)

Description Alias of date_sub. The number of complete partitions between the timestamps.
Example datesub('hour', TIMESTAMP '1992-09-30 23:59:59', TIMESTAMP '1992-10-01 01:58:00')
Result 1

datetrunc(part, timestamp)

Description Alias of date_trunc. Truncate to specified precision.
Example datetrunc('hour', TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20 20:38:40')
Result 1992-09-20 20:00:00

dayname(timestamp)

Description The (English) name of the weekday.
Example dayname(TIMESTAMP '1992-03-22')
Result Sunday

epoch_ms(ms)

Description Converts ms since epoch to a timestamp.
Example epoch_ms(701222400000)
Result 1992-03-22 00:00:00

epoch_ms(timestamp)

Description Converts a timestamp to milliseconds since the epoch.
Example epoch_ms('2022-11-07 08:43:04.123456'::TIMESTAMP);
Result 1667810584123

epoch_ms(timestamp)

Description Return the total number of milliseconds since the epoch.
Example epoch_ms(timestamp '2021-08-03 11:59:44.123456')
Result 1627991984123

epoch_ns(timestamp)

Description Return the total number of nanoseconds since the epoch.
Example epoch_ns(timestamp '2021-08-03 11:59:44.123456')
Result 1627991984123456000

epoch_us(timestamp)

Description Return the total number of microseconds since the epoch.
Example epoch_us(timestamp '2021-08-03 11:59:44.123456')
Result 1627991984123456

epoch(timestamp)

Description Converts a timestamp to seconds since the epoch.
Example epoch('2022-11-07 08:43:04'::TIMESTAMP);
Result 1667810584

extract(field FROM timestamp)

Description Get subfield from a timestamp.
Example extract('hour' FROM TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20 20:38:48')
Result 20

greatest(timestamp, timestamp)

Description The later of two timestamps.
Example greatest(TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20 20:38:48', TIMESTAMP '1992-03-22 01:02:03.1234')
Result 1992-09-20 20:38:48

isfinite(timestamp)

Description Returns true if the timestamp is finite, false otherwise.
Example isfinite(TIMESTAMP '1992-03-07')
Result true

isinf(timestamp)

Description Returns true if the timestamp is infinite, false otherwise.
Example isinf(TIMESTAMP '-infinity')
Result true

last_day(timestamp)

Description The last day of the month.
Example last_day(TIMESTAMP '1992-03-22 01:02:03.1234')
Result 1992-03-31

least(timestamp, timestamp)

Description The earlier of two timestamps.
Example least(TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20 20:38:48', TIMESTAMP '1992-03-22 01:02:03.1234')
Result 1992-03-22 01:02:03.1234

make_timestamp(bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, bigint, double)

Description The timestamp for the given parts.
Example make_timestamp(1992, 9, 20, 13, 34, 27.123456)
Result 1992-09-20 13:34:27.123456

make_timestamp(microseconds)

Description The timestamp for the given number of µs since the epoch.
Example make_timestamp(1667810584123456)
Result 2022-11-07 08:43:04.123456

monthname(timestamp)

Description The (English) name of the month.
Example monthname(TIMESTAMP '1992-09-20')
Result September

strftime(timestamp, format)

Description Converts timestamp to string according to the format string.
Example strftime(timestamp '1992-01-01 20:38:40', '%a, %-d %B %Y - %I:%M:%S %p')
Result Wed, 1 January 1992 - 08:38:40 PM

strptime(text, format-list)

Description Converts the string text to timestamp applying the format strings in the list until one succeeds. Throws an error on failure. To return NULL on failure, use try_strptime.
Example strptime('4/15/2023 10:56:00', ['%d/%m/%Y %H:%M:%S', '%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S'])
Result 2023-04-15 10:56:00

strptime(text, format)

Description Converts the string text to timestamp according to the format string. Throws an error on failure. To return NULL on failure, use try_strptime.
Example strptime('Wed, 1 January 1992 - 08:38:40 PM', '%a, %-d %B %Y - %I:%M:%S %p')
Result 1992-01-01 20:38:40

time_bucket(bucket_width, timestamp[, offset])

Description Truncate timestamp by the specified interval bucket_width. Buckets are offset by offset interval.
Example time_bucket(INTERVAL '10 minutes', TIMESTAMP '1992-04-20 15:26:00-07', INTERVAL '5 minutes')
Result 1992-04-20 15:25:00

time_bucket(bucket_width, timestamp[, origin])

Description Truncate timestamp by the specified interval bucket_width. Buckets are aligned relative to origin timestamp. origin defaults to 2000-01-03 00:00:00 for buckets that don't include a month or year interval, and to 2000-01-01 00:00:00 for month and year buckets.
Example time_bucket(INTERVAL '2 weeks', TIMESTAMP '1992-04-20 15:26:00', TIMESTAMP '1992-04-01 00:00:00')
Result 1992-04-15 00:00:00

to_timestamp(double)

Description Converts seconds since the epoch to a timestamp with time zone.
Example to_timestamp(1284352323.5)
Result 2010-09-13 04:32:03.5+00

try_strptime(text, format-list)

Description Converts the string text to timestamp applying the format strings in the list until one succeeds. Returns NULL on failure.
Example try_strptime('4/15/2023 10:56:00', ['%d/%m/%Y %H:%M:%S', '%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S'])
Result 2023-04-15 10:56:00

try_strptime(text, format)

Description Converts the string text to timestamp according to the format string. Returns NULL on failure.
Example try_strptime('Wed, 1 January 1992 - 08:38:40 PM', '%a, %-d %B %Y - %I:%M:%S %p')
Result 1992-01-01 20:38:40

Timestamp Table Functions

The table below shows the available table functions for TIMESTAMP types.

Name Description
generate_series(timestamp, timestamp, interval) Generate a table of timestamps in the closed range, stepping by the interval.
range(timestamp, timestamp, interval) Generate a table of timestamps in the half open range, stepping by the interval.

Infinite values are not allowed as table function bounds.

generate_series(timestamp, timestamp, interval)

Description Generate a table of timestamps in the closed range, stepping by the interval.
Example generate_series(TIMESTAMP '2001-04-10', TIMESTAMP '2001-04-11', INTERVAL 30 MINUTE)

range(timestamp, timestamp, interval)

Description Generate a table of timestamps in the half open range, stepping by the interval.
Example range(TIMESTAMP '2001-04-10', TIMESTAMP '2001-04-11', INTERVAL 30 MINUTE)
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Last modified: 2024-06-18