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0.10 (stable)
Text Functions

Text Functions and Operators

This section describes functions and operators for examining and manipulating string values. The symbol denotes a space character.

Name Description
string ^@ search_string Return true if string begins with search_string.
string || string String concatenation.
string[index] Extract a single character using a (1-based) index.
string[begin:end] Extract a string using slice conventions. Missing begin or end arguments are interpreted as the beginning or end of the list respectively. Negative values are accepted.
string LIKE target Returns true if the string matches the like specifier (see Pattern Matching).
string SIMILAR TO regex Returns true if the string matches the regex; identical to regexp_full_match (see Pattern Matching).
array_extract(list, index) Extract a single character using a (1-based) index.
array_slice(list, begin, end) Extract a string using slice conventions. Negative values are accepted.
ascii(string) Returns an integer that represents the Unicode code point of the first character of the string.
bar(x, min, max[, width]) Draw a band whose width is proportional to (x - min) and equal to width characters when x = max. width defaults to 80.
bit_length(string) Number of bits in a string.
chr(x) Returns a character which is corresponding the ASCII code value or Unicode code point.
concat_ws(separator, string, ...) Concatenate strings together separated by the specified separator.
concat(string, ...) Concatenate many strings together.
contains(string, search_string) Return true if search_string is found within string.
ends_with(string, search_string) Return true if string ends with search_string.
format_bytes(bytes) Converts bytes to a human-readable representation using units based on powers of 2 (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.).
format(format, parameters, ...) Formats a string using the fmt syntax.
from_base64(string) Convert a base64 encoded string to a character string.
greatest(x1, x2, ...) Selects the largest value using lexicographical ordering. Note that lowercase characters are considered “larger” than uppercase characters and collations are not supported.
hash(value) Returns a UBIGINT with the hash of the value.
ilike_escape(string, like_specifier, escape_character) Returns true if the string matches the like_specifier (see Pattern Matching) using case-insensitive matching. escape_character is used to search for wildcard characters in the string.
instr(string, search_string) Return location of first occurrence of search_string in string, counting from 1. Returns 0 if no match found.
least(x1, x2, ...) Selects the smallest value using lexicographical ordering. Note that uppercase characters are considered “smaller” than lowercase characters, and collations are not supported.
left_grapheme(string, count) Extract the left-most grapheme clusters.
left(string, count) Extract the left-most count characters.
length_grapheme(string) Number of grapheme clusters in string.
length(string) Number of characters in string.
like_escape(string, like_specifier, escape_character) Returns true if the string matches the like_specifier (see Pattern Matching) using case-sensitive matching. escape_character is used to search for wildcard characters in the string.
lower(string) Convert string to lower case.
lpad(string, count, character) Pads the string with the character from the left until it has count characters.
ltrim(string, characters) Removes any occurrences of any of the characters from the left side of the string.
ltrim(string) Removes any spaces from the left side of the string.
md5(value) Returns the MD5 hash of the value.
nfc_normalize(string) Convert string to Unicode NFC normalized string. Useful for comparisons and ordering if text data is mixed between NFC normalized and not.
not_ilike_escape(string, like_specifier, escape_character) Returns false if the string matches the like_specifier (see Pattern Matching) using case-sensitive matching. escape_character is used to search for wildcard characters in the string.
not_like_escape(string, like_specifier, escape_character) Returns false if the string matches the like_specifier (see Pattern Matching) using case-insensitive matching. escape_character is used to search for wildcard characters in the string.
ord(string) Return ASCII character code of the leftmost character in a string.
parse_dirname(path, separator) Returns the top-level directory name from the given path. separator options: system, both_slash (default), forward_slash, backslash.
parse_dirpath(path, separator) Returns the head of the path (the pathname until the last slash) similarly to Python’s os.path.dirname function. separator options: system, both_slash (default), forward_slash, backslash.
parse_filename(path, trim_extension, separator) Returns the last component of the path similarly to Python’s os.path.basename function. If trim_extension is true, the file extension will be removed (defaults to false). separator options: system, both_slash (default), forward_slash, backslash.
parse_path(path, separator) Returns a list of the components (directories and filename) in the path similarly to Python’s pathlib.parts function. separator options: system, both_slash (default), forward_slash, backslash.
position(search_string IN string) Return location of first occurrence of search_string in string, counting from 1. Returns 0 if no match found.
printf(format, parameters...) Formats a string using printf syntax.
read_text(source) Returns the content from source (a filename, a list of filenames, or a glob pattern) as a VARCHAR. The file content is first validated to be valid UTF-8. If read_text attempts to read a file with invalid UTF-8 an error is thrown suggesting to use read_blob instead. See the read_text guide for more details.
regexp_escape(string) Escapes special patterns to turn string into a regular expression similarly to Python’s re.escape function.
regexp_extract_all(string, regex[, group = 0]) Split the string along the regex and extract all occurrences of group.
regexp_extract(string, pattern, name_list) If string contains the regexp pattern, returns the capturing groups as a struct with corresponding names from name_list (see Pattern Matching).
regexp_extract(string, pattern[, idx]) If string contains the regexp pattern, returns the capturing group specified by optional parameter idx (see Pattern Matching).
regexp_full_match(string, regex) Returns true if the entire string matches the regex (see Pattern Matching).
regexp_matches(string, pattern) Returns true if string contains the regexp pattern, false otherwise (see Pattern Matching).
regexp_replace(string, pattern, replacement) If string contains the regexp pattern, replaces the matching part with replacement (see Pattern Matching).
regexp_split_to_array(string, regex) Splits the string along the regex.
regexp_split_to_table(string, regex) Splits the string along the regex and returns a row for each part.
repeat(string, count) Repeats the string count number of times.
replace(string, source, target) Replaces any occurrences of the source with target in string.
reverse(string) Reverses the string.
right_grapheme(string, count) Extract the right-most count grapheme clusters.
right(string, count) Extract the right-most count characters.
rpad(string, count, character) Pads the string with the character from the right until it has count characters.
rtrim(string, characters) Removes any occurrences of any of the characters from the right side of the string.
rtrim(string) Removes any spaces from the right side of the string.
sha256(value) Returns a VARCHAR with the SHA-256 hash of the value.
split_part(string, separator, index) Split the string along the separator and return the data at the (1-based) index of the list. If the index is outside the bounds of the list, return an empty string (to match PostgreSQL’s behavior).
starts_with(string, search_string) Return true if string begins with search_string.
str_split_regex(string, regex) Splits the string along the regex.
string_split_regex(string, regex) Splits the string along the regex.
string_split(string, separator) Splits the string along the separator.
strip_accents(string) Strips accents from string.
strlen(string) Number of bytes in string.
strpos(string, search_string) Return location of first occurrence of search_string in string, counting from 1. Returns 0 if no match found.
substring(string, start, length) Extract substring of length characters starting from character start. Note that a start value of 1 refers to the first character of the string.
substring_grapheme(string, start, length) Extract substring of length grapheme clusters starting from character start. Note that a start value of 1 refers to the first character of the string.
to_base64(blob) Convert a blob to a base64 encoded string.
trim(string, characters) Removes any occurrences of any of the characters from either side of the string.
trim(string) Removes any spaces from either side of the string.
unicode(string) Returns the Unicode code of the first character of the string.
upper(string) Convert string to upper case.

string ^@ search_string

Description Return true if string begins with search_string.
Example 'abc' ^@ 'a'
Result true
Alias starts_with

string || string

Description String concatenation.
Example 'Duck' || 'DB'
Result DuckDB
Alias concat

string[index]

Description Extract a single character using a (1-based) index.
Example 'DuckDB'[4]
Result k
Alias array_extract

string[begin:end]

Description Extract a string using slice conventions. Missing begin or end arguments are interpreted as the beginning or end of the list respectively. Negative values are accepted.
Example 'DuckDB'[:4]
Result Duck
Alias array_slice

string LIKE target

Description Returns true if the string matches the like specifier (see Pattern Matching).
Example 'hello' LIKE '%lo'
Result true

string SIMILAR TO regex

Description Returns true if the string matches the regex; identical to regexp_full_match (see Pattern Matching)
Example 'hello' SIMILAR TO 'l+'
Result false

array_extract(list, index)

Description Extract a single character using a (1-based) index.
Example array_extract('DuckDB', 2)
Result u
Aliases list_element, list_extract

array_slice(list, begin, end)

Description Extract a string using slice conventions. Negative values are accepted.
Example 1 array_slice('DuckDB', 3, 4)
Result ck
Example 2 array_slice('DuckDB', 3, NULL)
Result NULL
Example 3 array_slice('DuckDB', 0, -3)
Result Duck

ascii(string)

Description Returns an integer that represents the Unicode code point of the first character of the string.
Example ascii('Ω')
Result 937

bar(x, min, max[, width])

Description Draw a band whose width is proportional to (x - min) and equal to width characters when x = max. width defaults to 80.
Example bar(5, 0, 20, 10)
Result ██▌

bit_length(string)

Description Number of bits in a string.
Example bit_length('abc')
Result 24

chr(x)

Description Returns a character which is corresponding the ASCII code value or Unicode code point.
Example chr(65)
Result A

concat_ws(separator, string, ...)

Description Concatenate strings together separated by the specified separator.
Example concat_ws(', ', 'Banana', 'Apple', 'Melon')
Result Banana, Apple, Melon

concat(string, ...)

Description Concatenate many strings together.
Example concat('Hello', ' ', 'World')
Result Hello World

contains(string, search_string)

Description Return true if search_string is found within string.
Example contains('abc', 'a')
Result true

ends_with(string, search_string)

Description Return true if string ends with search_string.
Example ends_with('abc', 'c')
Result true
Alias suffix

format_bytes(bytes)

Description Converts bytes to a human-readable representation using units based on powers of 2 (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.).
Example format_bytes(16384)
Result 16.0 KiB

format(format, parameters, ...)

Description Formats a string using the fmt syntax.
Example format('Benchmark "{}" took {} seconds', 'CSV', 42)
Result Benchmark "CSV" took 42 seconds

from_base64(string)

Description Convert a base64 encoded string to a character string.
Example from_base64('QQ==')
Result 'A'

greatest(x1, x2, ...)

Description Selects the largest value using lexicographical ordering. Note that lowercase characters are considered “larger” than uppercase characters and collations are not supported.
Example greatest('abc', 'bcd', 'cde', 'EFG')
Result 'cde'

hash(value)

Description Returns a UBIGINT with the hash of the value.
Example hash('🦆')
Result 2595805878642663834

ilike_escape(string, like_specifier, escape_character)

Description Returns true if the string matches the like_specifier (see Pattern Matching) using case-insensitive matching. escape_character is used to search for wildcard characters in the string.
Example ilike_escape('A%c', 'a$%C', '$')
Result true

instr(string, search_string)

Description Return location of first occurrence of search_string in string, counting from 1. Returns 0 if no match found.
Example instr('test test', 'es')
Result 2

least(x1, x2, ...)

Description Selects the smallest value using lexicographical ordering. Note that uppercase characters are considered “smaller” than lowercase characters, and collations are not supported.
Example least('abc', 'BCD', 'cde', 'EFG')
Result 'BCD'

left_grapheme(string, count)

Description Extract the left-most grapheme clusters.
Example left_grapheme('🤦🏼‍♂️🤦🏽‍♀️', 1)
Result 🤦🏼‍♂️

left(string, count)

Description Extract the left-most count characters.
Example left('Hello🦆', 2)
Result He

length_grapheme(string)

Description Number of grapheme clusters in string.
Example length_grapheme('🤦🏼‍♂️🤦🏽‍♀️')
Result 2

length(string)

Description Number of characters in string.
Example length('Hello🦆')
Result 6

like_escape(string, like_specifier, escape_character)

Description Returns true if the string matches the like_specifier (see Pattern Matching) using case-sensitive matching. escape_character is used to search for wildcard characters in the string.
Example like_escape('a%c', 'a$%c', '$')
Result true

lower(string)

Description Convert string to lower case.
Example lower('Hello')
Result hello
Alias lcase

lpad(string, count, character)

Description Pads the string with the character from the left until it has count characters.
Example lpad('hello', 8, '>')
Result >>>hello

ltrim(string, characters)

Description Removes any occurrences of any of the characters from the left side of the string.
Example ltrim('>>>>test<<', '><')
Result test<<

ltrim(string)

Description Removes any spaces from the left side of the string.
Example ltrim('␣␣␣␣test␣␣')
Result test␣␣

md5(value)

Description Returns the MD5 hash of the value.
Example md5('123')
Result 202cb962ac59075b964b07152d234b70

nfc_normalize(string)

Description Convert string to Unicode NFC normalized string. Useful for comparisons and ordering if text data is mixed between NFC normalized and not.
Example nfc_normalize('ardèch')
Result ardèch

not_ilike_escape(string, like_specifier, escape_character)

Description Returns false if the string matches the like_specifier (see Pattern Matching) using case-sensitive matching. escape_character is used to search for wildcard characters in the string.
Example not_ilike_escape('A%c', 'a$%C', '$')
Result false

not_like_escape(string, like_specifier, escape_character)

Description Returns false if the string matches the like_specifier (see Pattern Matching) using case-insensitive matching. escape_character is used to search for wildcard characters in the string.
Example not_like_escape('a%c', 'a$%c', '$')
Result false

ord(string)

Description Return ASCII character code of the leftmost character in a string.
Example ord('ü')
Result 252

parse_dirname(path, separator)

Description Returns the top-level directory name from the given path. separator options: system, both_slash (default), forward_slash, backslash.
Example parse_dirname('path/to/file.csv', 'system')
Result path

parse_dirpath(path, separator)

Description Returns the head of the path (the pathname until the last slash) similarly to Python’s os.path.dirname function. separator options: system, both_slash (default), forward_slash, backslash.
Example parse_dirpath('/path/to/file.csv', 'forward_slash')
Result /path/to

parse_filename(path, trim_extension, separator)

Description Returns the last component of the path similarly to Python’s os.path.basename function. If trim_extension is true, the file extension will be removed (defaults to false). separator options: system, both_slash (default), forward_slash, backslash.
Example parse_filename('path/to/file.csv', true, 'system')
Result file

parse_path(path, separator)

Description Returns a list of the components (directories and filename) in the path similarly to Python’s pathlib.parts function. separator options: system, both_slash (default), forward_slash, backslash.
Example parse_path('/path/to/file.csv', 'system')
Result [/, path, to, file.csv]

position(search_string IN string)

Description Return location of first occurrence of search_string in string, counting from 1. Returns 0 if no match found.
Example position('b' IN 'abc')
Result 2

printf(format, parameters...)

Description Formats a string using printf syntax.
Example printf('Benchmark "%s" took %d seconds', 'CSV', 42)
Result Benchmark "CSV" took 42 seconds

read_text(source)

Description Returns the content from source (a filename, a list of filenames, or a glob pattern) as a VARCHAR. The file content is first validated to be valid UTF-8. If read_text attempts to read a file with invalid UTF-8 an error is thrown suggesting to use read_blob instead. See the read_text guide for more details.
Example read_text('hello.txt')
Result hello\n

regexp_escape(string)

Description Escapes special patterns to turn string into a regular expression similarly to Python’s re.escape function.
Example regexp_escape('http://d.org')
Result http\:\/\/d\.org

regexp_extract_all(string, regex[, group = 0])

Description Split the string along the regex and extract all occurrences of group.
Example regexp_extract_all('hello_world', '([a-z ]+)_?', 1)
Result [hello, world]

regexp_extract(string, pattern, name_list)

Description If string contains the regexp pattern, returns the capturing groups as a struct with corresponding names from name_list (see Pattern Matching).
Example regexp_extract('2023-04-15', '(\d+)-(\d+)-(\d+)', ['y', 'm', 'd'])
Result {'y':'2023', 'm':'04', 'd':'15'}

regexp_extract(string, pattern[, idx])

Description If string contains the regexp pattern, returns the capturing group specified by optional parameter idx (see Pattern Matching).
Example regexp_extract('hello_world', '([a-z ]+)_?', 1)
Result hello

regexp_full_match(string, regex)

Description Returns true if the entire string matches the regex (see Pattern Matching).
Example regexp_full_match('anabanana', '(an)')
Result false

regexp_matches(string, pattern)

Description Returns true if string contains the regexp pattern, false otherwise (see Pattern Matching).
Example regexp_matches('anabanana', '(an)')
Result true

regexp_replace(string, pattern, replacement)

Description If string contains the regexp pattern, replaces the matching part with replacement (see Pattern Matching).
Example regexp_replace('hello', '[lo]', '-')
Result he-lo

regexp_split_to_array(string, regex)

Description Splits the string along the regex.
Example regexp_split_to_array('hello␣world; 42', ';?␣')
Result ['hello', 'world', '42']
Aliases string_split_regex, str_split_regex

regexp_split_to_table(string, regex)

Description Splits the string along the regex and returns a row for each part.
Example regexp_split_to_table('hello␣world; 42', ';?␣')
Result Two rows: 'hello', 'world'

repeat(string, count)

Description Repeats the string count number of times.
Example repeat('A', 5)
Result AAAAA

replace(string, source, target)

Description Replaces any occurrences of the source with target in string.
Example replace('hello', 'l', '-')
Result he--o

reverse(string)

Description Reverses the string.
Example reverse('hello')
Result olleh

right_grapheme(string, count)

Description Extract the right-most count grapheme clusters.
Example right_grapheme('🤦🏼‍♂️🤦🏽‍♀️', 1)
Result 🤦🏽‍♀️

right(string, count)

Description Extract the right-most count characters.
Example right('Hello🦆', 3)
Result lo🦆

rpad(string, count, character)

Description Pads the string with the character from the right until it has count characters.
Example rpad('hello', 10, '<')
Result hello<<<<<

rtrim(string, characters)

Description Removes any occurrences of any of the characters from the right side of the string.
Example rtrim('>>>>test<<', '><')
Result >>>>test

rtrim(string)

Description Removes any spaces from the right side of the string.
Example rtrim('␣␣␣␣test␣␣')
Result ␣␣␣␣test

sha256(value)

Description Returns a VARCHAR with the SHA-256 hash of the value.
Example sha256('🦆')
Result d7a5c5e0d1d94c32218539e7e47d4ba9c3c7b77d61332fb60d633dde89e473fb

split_part(string, separator, index)

Description Split the string along the separator and return the data at the (1-based) index of the list. If the index is outside the bounds of the list, return an empty string (to match PostgreSQL’s behavior).
Example split_part('a;b;c', ';', 2)
Result b

starts_with(string, search_string)

Description Return true if string begins with search_string.
Example starts_with('abc', 'a')
Result true

str_split_regex(string, regex)

Description Splits the string along the regex.
Example str_split_regex('hello␣world; 42', ';?␣')
Result ['hello', 'world', '42']
Aliases string_split_regex, regexp_split_to_array

string_split_regex(string, regex)

Description Splits the string along the regex.
Example string_split_regex('hello␣world; 42', ';?␣')
Result ['hello', 'world', '42']
Aliases str_split_regex, regexp_split_to_array

string_split(string, separator)

Description Splits the string along the separator.
Example string_split('hello␣world', '␣')
Result ['hello', 'world']
Aliases str_split, string_to_array

strip_accents(string)

Description Strips accents from string.
Example strip_accents('mühleisen')
Result muhleisen

strlen(string)

Description Number of bytes in string.
Example strlen('🦆')
Result 4

strpos(string, search_string)

Description Return location of first occurrence of search_string in string, counting from 1. Returns 0 if no match found.
Example strpos('test test', 'es')
Result 2
Alias instr

substring(string, start, length)

Description Extract substring of length characters starting from character start. Note that a start value of 1 refers to the first character of the string.
Example substring('Hello', 2, 2)
Result el
Alias substr

substring_grapheme(string, start, length)

Description Extract substring of length grapheme clusters starting from character start. Note that a start value of 1 refers to the first character of the string.
Example substring_grapheme('🦆🤦🏼‍♂️🤦🏽‍♀️🦆', 3, 2)
Result 🤦🏽‍♀️🦆

to_base64(blob)

Description Convert a blob to a base64 encoded string.
Example to_base64('A'::blob)
Result QQ==
Alias base64

trim(string, characters)

Description Removes any occurrences of any of the characters from either side of the string.
Example trim('>>>>test<<', '><')
Result test

trim(string)

Description Removes any spaces from either side of the string.
Example trim('␣␣␣␣test␣␣')
Result test

unicode(string)

Description Returns the Unicode code of the first character of the string. Returns -1 when string is empty, and NULL when string is NULL.
Example [unicode('âbcd'), unicode('â'), unicode(''), unicode(NULL)]
Result [226, 226, -1, NULL]

upper(string)

Description Convert string to upper case.
Example upper('Hello')
Result HELLO
Alias ucase

Text Similarity Functions

These functions are used to measure the similarity of two strings using various similarity measures.

Name Description
damerau_levenshtein(s1, s2) Extension of Levenshtein distance to also include transposition of adjacent characters as an allowed edit operation. In other words, the minimum number of edit operations (insertions, deletions, substitutions or transpositions) required to change one string to another. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different.
editdist3(s1, s2) Alias of levenshtein for SQLite compatibility. The minimum number of single-character edits (insertions, deletions or substitutions) required to change one string to the other. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different.
hamming(s1, s2) The Hamming distance between to strings, i.e., the number of positions with different characters for two strings of equal length. Strings must be of equal length. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different.
jaccard(s1, s2) The Jaccard similarity between two strings. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different. Returns a number between 0 and 1.
jaro_similarity(s1, s2) The Jaro similarity between two strings. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different. Returns a number between 0 and 1.
jaro_winkler_similarity(s1, s2) The Jaro-Winkler similarity between two strings. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different. Returns a number between 0 and 1.
levenshtein(s1, s2) The minimum number of single-character edits (insertions, deletions or substitutions) required to change one string to the other. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different.
mismatches(s1, s2) Alias for hamming(s1, s2). The number of positions with different characters for two strings of equal length. Strings must be of equal length. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different.

damerau_levenshtein(s1, s2)

Description Extension of Levenshtein distance to also include transposition of adjacent characters as an allowed edit operation. In other words, the minimum number of edit operations (insertions, deletions, substitutions or transpositions) required to change one string to another. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different.
Example damerau_levenshtein('duckdb', 'udckbd')
Result 2

editdist3(s1, s2)

Description Alias of levenshtein for SQLite compatibility. The minimum number of single-character edits (insertions, deletions or substitutions) required to change one string to the other. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different.
Example editdist3('duck', 'db')
Result 3

hamming(s1, s2)

Description The Hamming distance between to strings, i.e., the number of positions with different characters for two strings of equal length. Strings must be of equal length. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different.
Example hamming('duck', 'luck')
Result 1

jaccard(s1, s2)

Description The Jaccard similarity between two strings. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different. Returns a number between 0 and 1.
Example jaccard('duck', 'luck')
Result 0.6

jaro_similarity(s1, s2)

Description The Jaro similarity between two strings. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different. Returns a number between 0 and 1.
Example jaro_similarity('duck', 'duckdb')
Result 0.88

jaro_winkler_similarity(s1, s2)

Description The Jaro-Winkler similarity between two strings. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different. Returns a number between 0 and 1.
Example jaro_winkler_similarity('duck', 'duckdb')
Result 0.93

levenshtein(s1, s2)

Description The minimum number of single-character edits (insertions, deletions or substitutions) required to change one string to the other. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different.
Example levenshtein('duck', 'db')
Result 3

mismatches(s1, s2)

Description Alias for hamming(s1, s2). The number of positions with different characters for two strings of equal length. Strings must be of equal length. Characters of different cases (e.g., a and A) are considered different.
Example mismatches('duck', 'luck')
Result 1

Formatters

fmt Syntax

The format(format, parameters...) function formats strings, loosely following the syntax of the {fmt} open-source formatting library.

Format without additional parameters:

SELECT format('Hello world'); -- Hello world

Format a string using {}:

SELECT format('The answer is {}', 42); -- The answer is 42

Format a string using positional arguments:

SELECT format('I''d rather be {1} than {0}.', 'right', 'happy'); -- I'd rather be happy than right.

Format Specifiers

Specifier Description Example
{:d} integer 123456
{:E} scientific notation 3.141593E+00
{:f} float 4.560000
{:o} octal 361100
{:s} string asd
{:x} hexadecimal 1e240
{:tX} integer, X is the thousand separator 123 456

Formatting Types

Integers:

SELECT format('{} + {} = {}', 3, 5, 3 + 5); -- 3 + 5 = 8

Booleans:

SELECT format('{} != {}', true, false); -- true != false

Format datetime values:

SELECT format('{}', DATE '1992-01-01'); -- 1992-01-01
SELECT format('{}', TIME '12:01:00'); -- 12:01:00
SELECT format('{}', TIMESTAMP '1992-01-01 12:01:00'); -- 1992-01-01 12:01:00

Format BLOB:

SELECT format('{}', BLOB '\x00hello'); -- \x00hello

Pad integers with 0s:

SELECT format('{:04d}', 33); -- 0033

Create timestamps from integers:

SELECT format('{:02d}:{:02d}:{:02d} {}', 12, 3, 16, 'AM'); -- 12:03:16 AM

Convert to hexadecimal:

SELECT format('{:x}', 123_456_789); -- 75bcd15

Convert to binary:

SELECT format('{:b}', 123_456_789); -- 111010110111100110100010101
SELECT format('{:,}',  123_456_789); -- 123,456,789
SELECT format('{:t.}', 123_456_789); -- 123.456.789
SELECT format('{:''}', 123_456_789); -- 123'456'789
SELECT format('{:_}',  123_456_789); -- 123_456_789
SELECT format('{:t }', 123_456_789); -- 123 456 789
SELECT format('{:tX}', 123_456_789); -- 123X456X789

printf Syntax

The printf(format, parameters...) function formats strings using the printf syntax.

Format without additional parameters:

SELECT printf('Hello world');

```text
Hello world

Format a string using arguments in a given order:

SELECT printf('The answer to %s is %d', 'life', 42);

```text
The answer to life is 42

Format a string using positional arguments ‘%position$formatter’, e.g., the second parameter as a string is encoded as ‘%2$s’:

SELECT printf('I''d rather be %2$s than %1$s.', 'right', 'happy');

```text
I'd rather be happy than right.

Format Specifiers

Specifier Description Example
%c character code to character a
%d integer 123456
%Xd integer with thousand seperarator X from ,, ., '', _ 123_456
%E scientific notation 3.141593E+00
%f float 4.560000
%hd integer 123456
%hhd integer 123456
%lld integer 123456
%o octal 361100
%s string asd
%x hexadecimal 1e240

Formatting Types

Integers:

SELECT printf('%d + %d = %d', 3, 5, 3 + 5); -- 3 + 5 = 8

Booleans:

SELECT printf('%s != %s', true, false); -- true != false

Format datetime values:

SELECT printf('%s', DATE '1992-01-01'); -- 1992-01-01
SELECT printf('%s', TIME '12:01:00'); -- 12:01:00
SELECT printf('%s', TIMESTAMP '1992-01-01 12:01:00'); -- 1992-01-01 12:01:00

Format BLOB:

SELECT printf('%s', BLOB '\x00hello'); -- \x00hello

Pad integers with 0s:

SELECT printf('%04d', 33); -- 0033

Create timestamps from integers:

SELECT printf('%02d:%02d:%02d %s', 12, 3, 16, 'AM'); -- 12:03:16 AM

Convert to hexadecimal:

SELECT printf('%x', 123_456_789); -- 75bcd15

Convert to binary:

SELECT printf('%b', 123_456_789); -- 111010110111100110100010101

Thousand Separators

SELECT printf('%,d',  123_456_789); -- 123,456,789
SELECT printf('%.d',  123_456_789); -- 123.456.789
SELECT printf('%''d', 123_456_789); -- 123'456'789
SELECT printf('%_d',  123_456_789); -- 123_456_789
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Last modified: 2024-05-17