Java JDBC API

Installation

The DuckDB Java JDBC API can be installed from Maven Central. Please see the installation page for details.

Basic API Usage

DuckDB’s JDBC API implements the main parts of the standard Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API, version 4.0. Describing JDBC is beyond the scope of this page, see the official documentation for details. Below we focus on the DuckDB-specific parts.

Startup & Shutdown

In JDBC, database connections are created through the standard java.sql.DriverManager class. The driver should auto-register in the DriverManager, if that does not work for some reason, you can enforce registration like so:

Class.forName("org.duckdb.DuckDBDriver");

To create a DuckDB connection, call DriverManager with the jdbc:duckdb: JDBC URL prefix, like so:

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:duckdb:");

When using the jdbc:duckdb: URL alone, an in-memory database is created. Note that for an in-memory database no data is persisted to disk (i.e. all data is lost when you exit the Java program). If you would like to access or create a persistent database, append its file name after the path. For example, if your database is stored in /tmp/my_database, use the JDBC URL jdbc:duckdb:/tmp/my_database to create a connection to it.

It is possible to open a DuckDB database file in read-only mode. This is for example useful if multiple Java processes want to read the same database file at the same time. To open an existing database file in read-only mode, set the connection property duckdb.read_only like so:

Properties ro_prop = new Properties();
ro_prop.setProperty("duckdb.read_only", "true");
Connection conn_ro = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:duckdb:/tmp/my_database", ro_prop);

The JDBC DriverManager API is a relatively poor fit for embedded database management systems such as DuckDB. If you would like to create multiple connections to the same database, it would be somewhat logical to just create additional connections with the same URL. This is however only supported for read-only connections. If you would like to create multiple read-write connections to the same database file or the same in-memory database instance, you can use the custom duplicate() method like so:

Connection conn2 = ((DuckDBConnection) conn).duplicate();

Querying

DuckDB supports the standard JDBC methods to send queries and retreive result sets. First a Statement object has to be created from the Connection, this object can then be used to send queries using execute and executeQuery. execute() is meant for queries where no results are expected like CREATE TABLE or UPDATE etc. and executeQuery() is meant to be used for queries that produce results (e.g. SELECT). Below two examples. See also the JDBC Statement and ResultSet documentations.

// create a table
Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
stmt.execute("CREATE TABLE items (item VARCHAR, value DECIMAL(10,2), count INTEGER)");
// insert two items into the table
stmt.execute("INSERT INTO items VALUES ('jeans', 20.0, 1), ('hammer', 42.2, 2)");
ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT * FROM items");
while (rs.next()) {
	System.out.println(rs.getString(1));
	System.out.println(rs.getInt(3));
}
rs.close()
// jeans
// 1
// hammer
// 2

DuckDB also supports prepared statements as per the JDBC API:

PreparedStatement p_stmt = conn.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO test VALUES (?, ?, ?);");

p_stmt.setString(1, "chainsaw");
p_stmt.setDouble(2, 500.0);
p_stmt.setInt(3, 42);
p_stmt.execute();

// more calls to execute() possible
p_stmt.close();

Note:

Do not use prepared statements to insert large amounts of data into DuckDB. See the data import documentation for better options.