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1.0 (stable)
Comparisons

Comparison Operators

The table below shows the standard comparison operators. Whenever either of the input arguments is NULL, the output of the comparison is NULL.

Operator Description Example Result
< less than 2 < 3 true
> greater than 2 > 3 false
<= less than or equal to 2 <= 3 true
>= greater than or equal to 4 >= NULL NULL
= equal NULL = NULL NULL
<> or != not equal 2 <> 2 false

The table below shows the standard distinction operators. These operators treat NULL values as equal.

Operator Description Example Result
IS DISTINCT FROM not equal, including NULL 2 IS DISTINCT FROM NULL true
IS NOT DISTINCT FROM equal, including NULL NULL IS NOT DISTINCT FROM NULL true

BETWEEN and IS [NOT] NULL

Besides the standard comparison operators there are also the BETWEEN and IS (NOT) NULL operators. These behave much like operators, but have special syntax mandated by the SQL standard. They are shown in the table below.

Note that BETWEEN and NOT BETWEEN are only equivalent to the examples below in the cases where both a, x and y are of the same type, as BETWEEN will cast all of its inputs to the same type.

Predicate Description
a BETWEEN x AND y equivalent to x <= a AND a <= y
a NOT BETWEEN x AND y equivalent to x > a OR a > y
expression IS NULL true if expression is NULL, false otherwise
expression ISNULL alias for IS NULL (non-standard)
expression IS NOT NULL false if expression is NULL, true otherwise
expression NOTNULL alias for IS NOT NULL (non-standard)

For the expression BETWEEN x AND y, x is used as the lower bound and y is used as the upper bound. Therefore, if x > y, the result will always be false.

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Last modified: 2024-07-10